FTM Gender Confirmation: Facial Masculinization

As part of a transgender individual’s transition, facial masculinization surgery (FMS) can be used to address concerns from the scalp to the base of the neck.

FTM Gender Confirmation: Facial Masculinization Overview - 1196

The Skinny

Average Recovery

4 weeks




Surgical Procedure




$1000 - $20000

The Specifics

What is facial masculinization?

Facial masculinization procedures are a collection of surgical and non-surgical options for female to male (FTM) transgender patients seeking to further refine and define their facial features and neck aesthetic. Facial masculinization procedures are used to create a characteristically masculine appearance and male face with higher bone definition and contouring, larger facial proportions, forehead augmentation and forehead lengthening, and more prominent jaw contouring and neck anatomy with less soft tissue.

Candidates considering these procedures may consider any treatment that is most aligned with their ideal aesthetic. Surgical and non-surgical cosmetic and plastic surgery procedures may be able to be used in addition to medical and hormone therapies from a healthcare provider.

Information on top surgeries (like a mastectomy) and other female to male gender affirming surgeries as part of a gender transition for transmen can be found in our comprehensive guide to FTM gender affirmation solutions.

What cosmetic concerns do facial masculinization procedures treat?

  1. Upper Third of the Face: This includes surgical and non-surgical procedures for scalp hair, facial hair, forehead and brow structure, and eyebrows/eyelashes.
  2. Middle Third of the Face: These surgical or non-surgical techniques are used to address the cheeks, nose, and lips.
  3. Lower Face and Neck: Treatments in this area are targeted to the jaw, chin, and Adam’s apple.

Who is the ideal candidate for a facial masculinization procedure?

The ideal candidate for a facial masculinization procedure is a transgender individual undergoing a female to male (FTM) gender confirmation transtion. When considering these procedures, potential candidates should consider their overall physical and mental health, individual expectations of the procedure, and ability to commit to recovery times. Facial masculinization procedures are generally not recommended for the pediatric population under the age of 18, however, this varies by individual and should be discussed with a board-certified provider.

What is the average recovery associated with a facial masculinization procedure?

The average recovery associated with facial masculinization procedures will vary between surgical and non-surgical procedures. Surgical procedures will typically have weeks to months of recovery time, and include bruising, tenderness, and swelling some limitations on activity. Non-surgical procedures are often less invasive with less recovery time and side effects. During consultation with your plastic surgeon, specific timelines and side effects are reviewed.

What are the potential side effects of a facial masculinization procedure?

Possible side effects following both surgical and non-surgical facial masculinization procedures generally include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, risk of site infection, difficulty with certain movements, skin discoloration, altered sensation, suboptimal results needing correction, and prolonged edema.

What can someone expect from the results of a facial masculinization procedure?

The results following most facial masculinization procedures are long lasting or permanent. Surgical treatment options have permanent results that may take a few months to finalize. Non-surgical procedures may be temporary and require regular maintenance. Results from the majority of these procedures are subject to aging, weight changes, and use over time.

What is the average cost of a facial masculinization procedure?

Depending on the facial masculinization procedure, costs can range from $1,000 to $20,000. Temporary procedures are usually less expensive than surgical procedures, but they require ongoing maintenance. The cost of a surgical procedure will be dependent on location, surgeon, and length and involvement of the surgery.


  • Both Temporary & Permanent Solutions Available


  • Comprehensive Treatment Plan Required

Invasiveness Score


Invasiveness is graded based on factors such as anesthesia practices, incisions, and recovery notes common to this procedure.

What to Expect

Facial masculinization can encompass any number of surgical and non-surgical solutions. Here, we overview a few of the most common:

The Takeaway

Gender Confirming Facial Masculinization Surgeries are a collection of cosmetic surgeries to assist transgender individuals in achieving their aesthetic goals as part of a full transition treatment plan. These procedures specifically address facial structure to create a more male face consistent with a candidate's wishes.

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Source List


AEDIT uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Karel E Y Claes Chest Surgery for Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Individuals PubMed.gov; 2018-07-02
  2. American Society of Plastic Surgeons Gender Confirmation Surgeries plasticsurgery.org


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